Mix garlic, vinegar, fish sauce, soy sauce, and black pepper (and bay leaf, if using). Add chicken and/or pork (for this amount of marinade, better use about 3 lbs of pork if making pork adobo without chicken). Let marinate for several hours, if possible -- pork especially benefits from several hour marination. Then bring to a boil and cook until chicken is nearly done (but boil pork until tender and ready to eat). (Watch out you don't cook chicken until *too* tender or it will fall apart when you fry it next).
When ready, remove all meat pieces from the liquid, reserving the liquid. Fry the pieces of meat, a few at a time, in deep hot oil until crispy, removing each to a serving dish when it is crisp. (You can put them in a warm oven to keep warm).
When frying is finished, pour out the excess oil, add the reserved marinade to the frying pan to deglaze, bring the liquid to a boil, and reduce a little.
Return crispy meat pieces to warm marinade immediately before serving, or simply serve meat and sauce separately to ensure meat remains crispy.
Serve with steamed rice.
NOTE: FISH SAUCE, SOY SAUCE, SALT:
You can replace part or all of the fish sauce by plain salt, depending on your mood (but please don't eliminate all of it!). Of course, if you reduce or eliminate the fish sauce, you should increase the soy sauce a bit so there is still some color.
Next best would be 'ordinary' Philippine vinegar or a good white wine vinegar, if you don't have palm vinegar. Use plain white (clear) distilled vinegar only as a last resort, and be careful about the amount you use, since distilled vinegar is stronger (more acidic) than palm or wine vinegar.
NOTE: BAY LEAF:
From:  Luisa Lagmay Thompson
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